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Principles that can be use with current technology to address new global challenges such as housing crisis, weather crisis. This piece of writing will compare and contrast the vernacular architecture of selected locations. They will be subjected to the social, environmental and economic factors. This process will involve using visualization as a means of observational study to understand similarities and differences in these styles.

A criteria breaking down characteristics of each places such as terrain, weather and climate, materiality and rural and urban design will also be used to analyse the different technology used in each area to pinpoint attributes that make vernacular architecture a suitable responses to existing issues in communities.

This will help understand the vernacular architecture of these locations, and in return the lessons learned from them can be used in implementing better technique, better design when it comes to urban planning in regards to factors that have become an issue.

The size of the dissertation limited the amount of information that could be placed findings. The time frame for the submission of this dissertation was a major draw back as well, which affected the amount of information that could be collected for this research. Case studies are an important and useful method of data collection but there are also disadvantages to it in relation to this research.

These disadvantages are the amount of case studies that can be used based on the size of the discussion. Another is the amount of relevant information associated with the case study are required more in-depth analysis that would not have been able to fit with the word count of research. The case studies were subjected to selection bias, which affected the responses to the aim of the research. The case studies were qualitative, which means information found were based on verbal description and subjective opinions.

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The Turks and Caicos Islands consist of 40 islands and cays. Eight of which are inhabited. The average temperature of the islands are between 85 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit degrees Celsius from June to October and can reach as high as 35 degrees Celsius in late summer months. The island is kept at a comfortable temperature due to its trade winds. TCI Tourism Board, Rainfall is annually averaged to about 21 inches can increased to 40 inches due west of the islands especially due to hurricanes. VisitTCI, Because of the weather and climate pattern of these islands, due to its location in the equator as well as other islands of the Caribbean region, it is susceptible to harsh storms such as hurricanes.

This devastates the islands with strong winds reaching mph and flooding if residents do not prepare for it or have proper shelter built to handle these types of conditions. Hurricanes in the islands of Turks and Caicos are factors contributing the adaptation of using concrete blocks for its building.

This building has been such a key element in the construction of buildings in the Turks and Caicos Islands so much that it has become part of the building regulations that buildings are to be built using these blocks or stronger materials to withstand the harsh storms. This is why in recent years the islands construction has gone from timber construction to masonry construction. An adaptation to the environmental conditions. This is because the masonry buildings are much stronger to resist the strong winds and would prolong the life of the buildings.

Residents are advised to installed hurricane shutters to their windows to keep the residents safer in their home. The heat is another factor that cause most of the buildings in the islands to have a lot of windows for airflow. There still include other provisions that has affected the way residents of the island build. Being surrounded by the Ocean, It has caused residents to raise their buildings. As Turks and Caicos terrain is very leveled as compared to other areas, its buildings are not affected as much.

Interpreting Vernacular Architecture in Asia - HKUx on edX

Turks and Caicos Islands is an example chosen to show how devastating the climate can be for an area and inhabitants. The responses to these environmental factors are what has shaped the vernacular of their buildings and created a type of architecture that is known as Caribbean Architecture. This type of architecture shows the effectiveness of climate responsive architecture. In more rural areas of this country, its architecture is linked to being a type of informal architecture, because in most instances the buildings were built to act as shelter for residents, and with each different area, there was distinction within their design and structure based on what was available for construction within each area while adhering to the social and culture of that place.

As these are times where climate is becoming a major issue in a lot of countries, looking at how the Caribbean has dealt and responded to the harsh storms and climate conditions can assist in the way available resources can be used to create building able to withstand these storms.

Case Study 2 — Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. The Dakhleh Oasis is one of the five principal oases in the western desert of Egypt. Due to the extreme arid conditions of the Sahara Desert, the source of water at the western desert oasis is from artesian wells and underground pressure. Weber, In this area of Egypt, earth is the main building material. Because of the hot-arid climate and availability, earth has always been the most prevalent building material that is viable and a realistic option for most of the building built in areas such as these. Minke, Morgan mentions in Earth architecture from ancient modern, that these vernacular structures show a level of sophistication in the desert climates that makes houses warm in winter but also keeps them cool in the summer while keeping residents protected against wind and sand storms.

These buildings have been said to be impervious to insects, fire and rot resilient as well which is possibly the reason these structure have lasted thousands of years. Morgan, This piece of knowledge gives a lot of information on sustainable materials that is useable in constructing buildings, seeing that the present time are plaque with issues of overheating within buildings, these techniques can teach us on technologies that can be used to resolve this.

Technique such as these can possibly involved not using mud brick as a structural element but using the material as a form of plaster or render, which would keep the cooling properties in summer and vice versa. Case Study 3 — Brazil. Brazil is the largest country in South America with its people ethnicity being Latin.

As the country is a beautiful place and a major tourist destination, there are a few issues that plaques it such affordable housing crisis.

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One of the areas that shows this is Rio De Janeiro. While these shanty towns or favelas as they are referred to are very rural and informal in their appearances, they have some elements to them that are very important and can be used in the way urban design is approach in terms of materiality, cost and culture. There are countless examples of these poorly built and designed buildings but what they all have in common are they were built purely from scavenged materials from abandoned buildings around the city which made them arguably free of cost Talarico, A.

Another aspect of the slums of Rio De Janeiro is the strong ties to cultural as two to three generations of family would be under one household and because of the closeness in the way these buildings are built, a community is form in these slums but because of poor design, and lack of sanitary facilities, these communities are more susceptible to diseases and infections Cavalcanti, What sustainable design aims to do is to reduce negative and detrimental impact on the environment and the health, comfort and safety of people by improving the way buildings are designed and perform.

The sustainability of buildings are linked to the reduced consumption of non-renewable resources, minimized waste and the creation of healthy environment as defined by the USA General Services Administration. This is achieved during the production of building components, during the construction process as well as during the lifecycle of the building. Kazimee, The sustainability of Vernacular Architecture is also about managing the balance between preservation and use.

Approaching current times, Vernacular architecture has tried to become more urban. This was undoubtedly due to architects looking for a new ways of designing as well as making housing as affordable and sustainable as possible. Dwellers of rural vernacular buildings show insight in the use of limited local materials, minimum waste of the materials available, the ability to use inspiration from forms of nature. From a economical few most of these rural and informal vernacular buildings are almost cost free as locals would use mud bricks, scraps of wood, blocks from their surroundings.

  • Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum;
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Person build their dwellings at zero cost towards labour. The possibility of reusing what is already available is one aspect of vernacular architecture that is needed to be implemented in achieving sustainability with new buildings.

Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum

Examples of this sustainability within rural areas is the Slums of Brazil. Where most of the dwellings are built from scraps of materials found around the city and these buildings are built upon to create a large community of vernacular architecture ORTIZ, For Sustainability to be achieved using examples of areas such as the slums of Brazil, there requires a combination of the indigenous architecture and utilization of appropriate technology that is subservient to social values so that the same social issues that are seen from the slums of Brazil does not replicate itself.

Looking at vernacular architecture, It is the language of the architecture of a place, in terms of what a culture has determined it to be and the way of design and construct to suit their needs in terms of building, which can be said for most in a broad spectrum. In conclusion to this research, Vernacular Architecture in relation to economical, environmental and social issues and constraints has shape it as we know it today.